As expected, wood and fruit had different isotopic signatures than paired leave samples. Generally, non-photosynthetic tissues in C 3 plants are 13 C-enriched relative to leaves Cernusak et al. Although the pattern of 13 C enrichment in wood relative to leaves appears to be widespread across diverse taxa and ecosystems, causal mechanisms remain poorly understood Bowling et al. Greater 15 N-enrichment of trunk wood i. Differential N values among tissues are the result of internal N cycling within plants Shearer et al.
Movement of compounds with differential isotopic composition inside the plant Kennedy et al. Sampling larger samples of fruits and leaves at multiple developmental stages and from a greater number of species would clarify these relationships. Requirements for multiple samples from species, individuals, and tissues will obviously be determined by the research question and spatiotemporal scale of the study. Samples encompassing plant taxa with diverse physiological attributes e.
This is especially true in species-rich ecosystems, such as tropical forests. As expected, the results of a mixing model predicting the relative contribution of different food sources to a fruit-eating fish were largely influenced by isotopic variation. The magnitude of variation for a particular source e.
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Stomach contents analysis revealed that fruit is the most important food for M. Fish frugivory in Amazonian flooded forest is facilitated by high fruit production as most plants have their fruiting phenology synchronized with the flood season Parolin et al. When only mean isotopic ratios were included, the model predicted that C 3 aquatic macrophytes had the greatest contribution; however, aquatic macrophytes were not found in stomachs. Aquatic macrophytes may contribute to fish diets during the dry season, particularly in white-water rivers where macrophytes are abundant.
Figure 5. Small black diamonds represent isotopic signatures of individual fish. Fish positions were adjusted to account for trophic fractionation. Dashed polygon connects mean source values; dotted oval encloses sources within approximately one standard deviation of the mean.
Within-source isotopic variation increases uncertainty in mixing model results Boecklen et al. Differences in isotopic signatures among tissues within plants increased the ability of MixSIR models to correctly identify the most important food source. Thus, local inter-specific and among-tissue isotopic variation should be considered in sampling of basal production sources and modelling their relative contribution to consumer biomass.
Appendix 1. Appendix 2. Species: indet. Appendix 3. Idea Wild generously donated equipment used in this research. Steve Davis provided valuable comments on the manuscript. Global patterns of the isotopic composition of soil and plant nitrogen. Cycles Energy sources for detritivorous fishes in the Amazon.
Science , Preservation effects on stable isotope analysis of fish muscle. Post-photosynthetic fractionation of stable carbon isotopes between plant organs -a widespread phenomenon. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.
Diet, habitat selection and natural history of Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary in Jau National Park, Brazil. Discrimination against 13 CO 2 in leaves, pod walls, and seeds of water-stressed chickpea. Photosynthetica , Carbon sources of Amazonian fisheries. On the use of stable isotopes in trophic ecology. Carbon isotopes in terrestrial ecosystem pools and CO 2 fluxes. New Phytol. Brittonia , Why are non-photosynthetic tissues generally 13 C enriched compared with leaves in C 3 plants? Review and synthesis of current hypotheses.
Plant Biol. Dahlia Fish assemblage structure is consistent through an annual hydrological cycle in habitats of a floodplain-lake in the Colombian Amazon.
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Niche partitioning among frugivorous fishes in response to fluctuating resources in the Amazonian floodplain forest. Ecology , Stable isotopes in plant ecology. Diet of a group of Lagothrix lagothricha in southeastern Colombia. Influence of diet on the distribution of carbon isotopes in animals. Acta , Estimation of symbiotic dinitrogen fixation in alder forest by the method based on natural 15 N abundance. Plant Soil , Physiological mechanisms influencing plant nitrogen isotope composition. Trends Plant Sci. On the relationship between carbon isotope discrimination and the intercellular carbon dioxide concentration in leaves.
Plant Physiol. Autotrophic carbon-sources for fish of the Central Amazon. FRY, B. Stable Isotope Ecology. Springer, New York. Alternative approaches for solving underdetermined isotope mixing problems. In The central Amazon floodplain, ecology of a pulsing system. JUNK, W. Basin-wide variations in foliar properties of Amazonian forest: phylogeny, soils and climate.
Biogeosciences , Stable carbon and nitrogen incorporation in blood and fin tissue of the catfish Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus Siluriformes, Loricariidae.
Fishes , The fishes and the forest: explorations in the Amazonian natural history. University of California Press, Berkeley. The use of natural abundance of nitrogen isotopes in plant physiology and ecology. Plant, Cell Environ. Terrestrial plant ecology and 15 N natural abundance: the present limits to interpretation of uncultivated systems with original data from a Scottish old field.expert-professional.com/media/2020-07-16/anapi-znakomstva-kontakte.php
Physiology Woody Plants by Stephen Pallardy
Acta Amazon. Vertebrate responses to fruit production in Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests. Population abundance and biomass of large-bodied birds in Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests. Bird Conserv. Tansley review No. Palaios , Implementing a class of permutation tests: The coin package. Journal of Statistical Software , Fruits and frugivory.
An introduction to South American wetland forests: distribution, definitions and general characterization. Springer, New York, Pages Structure and function of the large central Amazonian river floodplains: synthesis and discussion.
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The importance of seed reserves for seedling performance: an integrated approach using morphological, physiological, and stable isotope techniques. Oecologia , Estimation of symbiotic N 2 fixation in an Amazon floodplain forest. Applying stable isotopes to examine food-web structure: an overview of analytical tools. Stable carbon isotope variation in C 3 and C 4 plants along the Amazon River. Nature , Stable carbon isotope ratio of tree leaves, boles and fine litter in a tropical forest in Rondonia, Brazil.
Nitrogen stable isotopic composition of leaves and soil: tropical versus temperate forests. Biogeochemistry , Isotopic composition of major carbon reservoirs in the Amazon floodplain. Variation in trophic shift for stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. Oikos , Incorporating uncertainty and prior information into stable isotope mixing models. Stable isotope compositions of organic carbon and nitrogen of two mangrove stands along the Tanzanian coastal zone.
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Shelf Sci. Seasonality of energy sources of Colossoma macropomum in a floodplain lake in the Amazon-lake Camaleao, Amazonas, Brazil. Carbon sources of fish in an Amazonian floodplain lake. The stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of vegetation in tropical forests of the Amazon Basin, Brazil. Central Amazonian floodplain forests: tree adaptations in a pulsing system. Fifth or Later Edition. Items related to Physiology of Woody Plants. Paul J. Kramer; Theodore T.
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